Botox blocks signals from the nerves to the muscles. The injected muscle can no longer contract, which causes the wrinkles to relax and soften. It is most often used on forehead lines, crow's feet (lines around the eye) and frown lines. Wrinkles caused by sun damage and gravity will not respond to Botox.
The effects from Botox will last four to six months. As muscle action gradually returns, the lines and wrinkles begin to re-appear and wrinkles need to be re-treated. The lines and wrinkles often appear less severe with time because the muscles are being trained to relax.
Temporary bruising is the most common side effect of Botox. Headaches, which resolve in 24-48 hours, can occur, but this is rare. A small percentage of patients may develop eyelid drooping. This usually resolves in three weeks. This usually happens when the Botox moves around so you shouldn't rub the treated area for 12 hours after injection or lay down for three to four hours. Dry mouth, discomfort or pain at the injection site, tiredness, headache, neck pain, and eye problems: double vision, blurred vision, decreased eyesight, drooping eyelids, swelling of your eyelids, and dry eyes.
Patients who are pregnant, breastfeeding or have a neurological disease should not use Botox. Since Botox® doesn't work for all wrinkles, a consultation with a doctor is recommended.
Dermal fillers help to diminish facial lines and restore volume and fullness in the face. As we age, our faces naturally lose subcutaneous fat. The facial muscles are then working closer to the skin surface, so smile lines and crow's feet become more apparent. The facial skin also stretches a bit, adding to this loss of facial volume. Other factors that affect the facial skin include sun exposure, heredity, and lifestyle. Dermal fillers can be used to:Dermal fillers can be very helpful in those with early signs of aging, or as a value-added part of facial rejuvenation surgery.
- Plump thin lips
- Enhance shallow contours
- Soften facial creases and wrinkles
- Improve the appearance of recessed scars
For some patients, surgery such as a facelift, brow lift, or eye lift may be the best approach. Non-surgical rejuvenation treatments, such as soft tissue fillers, cannot achieve the same results, but may help delay the time when consideration of a facelift becomes appropriate.
Complications from dermal fillers are uncommon. Potential risks vary depending on the specific filler used and the relative permanence of the filler substance and include:If dermal fillers obstruct blood flow then it can lead to tissue death (necrosis), blindness, stroke etc. These are very rare complications. Most dermal fillers do dissipate over time. To maintain your correction, you will need to consider repeating the injection process at intervals.
- Acne-like skin eruptions
- Bruising, bleeding from the injection site, swelling
- Damage to the skin that results in a wound and possible scarring
- Infection at the injection site
- Palpability of the filler under the surface of the skin
- Skin rash with itching
- Skin redness
- Under- or over-correction of wrinkles
Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is essentially an increased concentration of autologous platelets suspended in a small amount of plasma after centrifugation (a process in which blood collected from patient is spun in a machine in a controlled manner). PRP is 'autologous', meaning that it comes from the patient's own body.
- Blood is withdrawn from a patient's arm by syringe.
- The tubes containing withdrawn blood are placed in a centrifuge and spun using a carefully determined protocol.
- The speed and duration of centrifugation is very important to ensure the platelets are not damaged.
- Centrifuging separates the red and white blood cells and platelets and concentrates them at various levels in the tubes.
- Blood plasma that is rich in platelets is drawn off from the appropriate level for therapeutic use.
Platelets are probably best known as components of the blood clotting system. When injury disrupts a blood vessel and causes bleeding, platelets are activated and help with the formation of a clot that stems the flow of blood. In addition, every platelet is also a biochemical storehouse of regulatory, signalling and growth-factor molecules that participate in recovery and healing of tissue in response to injury. As an autologous preparation, PRP is safer to use as it is free from concerns over transmissible diseases such as HIV, hepatitis, West Nile fever, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. PRP requires no special considerations regarding antibody formation, effectively preventing the risk of graft vs. host disease and leading to better acceptance by patients.
PRP is immunologically neutral and poses no danger of allergy, hypersensitivity or foreign-body reactions. Sterile technique must be used at every stage of PRP preparation and application. The following medical conditions are a contraindication for use of PRP:
- Critical thrombocytopenia (low platelet count)
- Haemodynamic instability (collapse)
- Sepsis (infection)
- Acute and chronic infections
- Chronic liver disease
- Anti-coagulation therapy (warfarin, dabigatran, heparin)
- Hair loss disorders – PRP has been shown to reinvigorate dormant hair follicles and stimulate new hair growth
- Facial rejuvenation – PRP injections can treat wrinkles, photodamage and discoloration in conjunction together with other treatment modalities
- When PRP is applied by superficial or deep dermal injection, skin texture, tone and firmness can improve within 3 weeks with ongoing improvements over the next few months.
- Areas commonly treated using the PRP for rejuvenation include cheeks, around the eyes, jawline, back of hands, neck, knees, elbows, upper arms and post-pregnancy stretch marks.